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Top 10 Common Orthopaedic Surgeries Explained

Orthopaedic surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The field of orthopaedics is vast and varied, encompassing everything from fractures and dislocations to complex spinal deformities and joint replacements. With millions of orthopaedic surgeries performed every year, it’s a field that is constantly evolving and improving. In this article, we will explore the top 10 common orthopaedic surgeries and their explanations. These surgeries are performed to improve the quality of life for patients and help them regain mobility and independence. From knee replacements to rotator cuff repairs, we will delve into the procedures that are revolutionizing the field of orthopaedics and changing the lives of patients worldwide. So, if you are interested in learning more about the most common orthopaedic surgeries and what they involve, keep reading the article.

What is orthopaedic surgery

Orthopaedic surgery is a branch of medicine that specializes in the treatment of conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. It involves surgical procedures to correct injuries, deformities, and diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system, with the aim of restoring function, reducing pain, and improving overall quality of life. There are many types of orthopaedic surgery, as the field of orthopaedics encompasses a wide range of conditions and treatments. Some of the most common types of orthopaedic surgery include the following:

1. ACL reconstruction surgery

ACL reconstruction surgery is a surgical procedure that is performed to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), one of the major ligaments in the knee. The ACL is responsible for providing stability to the knee joint and preventing excessive forward movement of the tibia (shin bone) in relation to the femur (thigh bone). A torn ACL is a common sports injury, especially in activities that involve sudden changes in direction, jumping, or landing. How is it performed? During an ACL reconstruction surgery, a surgeon will replace the torn ligament with a graft, which can be taken from the patient’s own patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, or from a donor. The graft is attached to the femur and tibia using screws or other fixation devices, and the body gradually heals around the graft, creating a new ligament. The surgery is typically performed under general anesthesia and takes about one to two hours. Post-surgery Patients will need to undergo a period of rehabilitation after the surgery. Rehabilitation may involve physical therapy, exercises to improve range of motion and strength, and a gradual return to normal activities. Successful ACL reconstruction surgery can help to restore stability and function to the knee, allowing patients to resume their normal activities and prevent further damage to the joint.

2. Knee replacement surgery

Knee replacement surgery is a common orthopaedic procedure that involves removing damaged or worn-out parts of the knee joint and replacing them with artificial components. This surgery is usually performed when a patient’s knee joint has been severely damaged due to arthritis, injury, or other conditions that cause chronic pain and limit mobility. How is it performed? During the surgery, the patient is placed under general anesthesia, and an incision is made in the knee area. The damaged parts of the knee joint, including the cartilage and bone, are then removed, and the remaining bone is prepared to receive the artificial components. The artificial components, which typically consist of metal and plastic parts, are then fitted into place, and the incision is closed. Post-surgery After the surgery, the patient will typically spend a few days in the hospital for monitoring and rehabilitation. Physical therapy will be an essential part of the recovery process, as it will help the patient regain strength and mobility in the knee joint. The patient will also need to follow a prescribed exercise routine to help the new knee joint function properly. Post-surgery, it is essential to take proper care of the surgical site to prevent infection and ensure proper healing. The patient will be instructed on how to care for the wound, as well as any medications that need to be taken.

3. Hip Replacement Surgery

Hip replacement surgery is a common orthopaedic procedure performed to replace a damaged or diseased hip joint with an artificial one. It is typically recommended for patients with severe osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or hip fractures. How is it performed? During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the hip area and removes the damaged bone and cartilage. The remaining bone is then shaped to fit the prosthetic implant, which is made of metal, ceramic, or plastic. The implant is secured to the remaining bone with bone cement or is designed to bond directly to the bone. Post-surgery After the surgery, patients typically stay in the hospital for a few days to monitor their recovery. Physical therapy is an important aspect of post-surgical care and helps patients regain strength, flexibility, and range of motion. Patients are encouraged to walk with assistance soon after the surgery to promote healing and prevent complications. Although hip replacement surgery has a high success rate, it is not without risks. These can include infection, blood clots, dislocation, and implant failure. To reduce the risk of complications, patients are advised to follow their surgeon’s post-surgical instructions carefully and attend all scheduled follow-up appointments.

4. Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that is used to diagnose and treat knee conditions. During the procedure, a small camera (arthroscope) is inserted into the knee joint through a small incision, allowing the surgeon to visualize and repair any damage. How is it performed? The surgery is typically performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia, and patients are usually able to return home the same day. Recovery time can vary, but most patients can resume normal activities within a few weeks, with some physical therapy recommended to improve range of motion and strength. Post-surgery Post-surgery, patients are advised to keep the incision site clean and dry and follow any specific instructions given by the surgeon or physical therapist. Pain management is usually recommended, and patients may also be given exercises to perform at home to help with their recovery. Knee arthroscopy is a safe and effective procedure that can help alleviate knee pain and improve mobility.

5. Shoulder Arthroscopy

Shoulder arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows a surgeon to see inside the shoulder joint and perform repairs using small incisions and specialized tools. How is it performed? During the procedure, a small camera called an arthroscope is inserted into the joint, allowing the surgeon to see the damaged tissues on a video screen. Small instruments are then used to repair the tissue or remove any damaged areas. Post-surgery After the surgery, patients are usually able to go home the same day and recovery time is relatively quick. Most patients are able to resume normal activities within a few weeks. However, it is important to follow post-operative care instructions, including rest and physical therapy, to ensure proper healing and prevent further injury.

6. Ankle repair

Ankle repair is a surgical procedure to treat ankle joint injuries, such as ligament tears, fractures, and dislocations. The aim of the surgery is to restore the stability and function of the ankle joint, and to alleviate pain and discomfort. How is it performed? During the surgery, the patient is put under general anesthesia, and the surgeon makes an incision on the ankle to access the damaged tissues. Depending on the nature and severity of the injury, the surgeon may repair or replace the damaged ligaments, reposition and fix the broken bones, or perform other necessary procedures. Post-surgery After the surgery, the patient’s ankle is immobilized with a cast or brace to allow for proper healing. The patient may need to use crutches or a walker to avoid putting weight on the ankle for several weeks. Pain and swelling are common post-surgery, and the patient may be prescribed pain medication and instructed to elevate the ankle and apply ice packs to reduce swelling.

7. Spinal surgery

Spinal surgery is a complex surgical procedure that is performed to treat a range of spinal conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, scoliosis, and spinal cord injuries. The goal of spinal surgery is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function to the spine. How is Spinal Surgery Performed? Spinal surgery is performed under general anesthesia and may involve different techniques, depending on the condition being treated. Here are some of the most common spinal surgeries: Discectomy: This surgery is performed to remove the herniated portion of a disc that is pressing on a spinal nerve. Spinal Fusion: This surgery is performed to join two or more vertebrae together to stabilize the spine. Laminectomy: This surgery is performed to remove the lamina, the bony structure at the back of the vertebrae, to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves. Post-Surgery After spinal surgery, patients may experience some discomfort and will need to take pain medication to manage the pain. They will also need to follow specific post-surgical instructions, which may include: Restrictions on movement: Patients may be advised to limit bending, lifting, or twisting for a certain period after surgery to allow the spine to heal properly. Physical therapy: Patients may need to undergo physical therapy to help improve mobility and strength in the spine. Follow-up appointments: Patients will need to attend follow-up appointments with their surgeon to monitor their progress and ensure that they are healing correctly.

8. Joint Fusion

Joint fusion is also known as arthrodesis. It is a surgical procedure that involves permanently joining two bones together to eliminate the movement of a joint. This procedure is typically used to treat conditions such as arthritis, deformities, and instability in the joint that cannot be treated by other methods. How is it performed? During the procedure, the surgeon will first remove the cartilage and any other soft tissue that lines the joint, exposing the bone. The bone surfaces are then prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue and smoothing them out to ensure a good fusion. The two bones are then held together with screws, plates, or rods and bone grafts may be used to help stimulate the growth of new bone. The bone graft can come from the patient’s own bone or a donor source. Post-Surgery After the surgery, the patient will typically spend several days in the hospital to be monitored for any complications. Pain medication and physical therapy will be prescribed to help manage pain and to promote healing. The recovery time will vary depending on the patient’s age, overall health, and the location of the joint fusion. Typically, the patient will need to limit movement of the affected joint for a few weeks to allow the bone to heal and fuse together.

9. Shoulder replacement surgery

Shoulder replacement surgery, or shoulder arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace a damaged or diseased shoulder joint with an artificial joint or prosthesis. This procedure is usually recommended for patients who have severe arthritis, rotator cuff tears, or other types of shoulder damage that have not responded to conservative treatments. How is it performed? The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, and the surgeon will make an incision in the shoulder area to access the damaged joint. The damaged bone and cartilage are then removed, and the remaining bone is reshaped to fit the prosthesis. The artificial joint is then fitted into the shoulder socket, and the humeral head is replaced with a metal ball. The components of the prosthesis are secured in place with cement or screws. Post-Surgery Following the surgery, patients will need to stay in the hospital for a few days to allow for close monitoring and post-operative care. Physical therapy will begin as soon as possible to help the patient regain strength, mobility, and flexibility in the shoulder. It is essential to follow the prescribed rehabilitation program to ensure optimal outcomes. Patients may experience some shoulder pain, swelling, and discomfort following the surgery, but these can be managed with pain medications, ice, and physical therapy.

10. Trigger Finger Release

Trigger finger is a condition where the tendons in the fingers or thumb become inflamed and swollen. This can cause the affected finger to get stuck in a bent position and then suddenly snap straight, as if releasing a trigger. In severe cases, trigger finger can be quite painful and can interfere with daily activities. Trigger finger release is a surgical procedure that is often performed to treat this condition. How is it performed? During the trigger finger release procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the palm of the hand or at the base of the affected finger. They then carefully cut the constricting band of tissue that is causing the tendon to get stuck, which allows the tendon to move freely again. The procedure typically takes around 20-30 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia. In some cases, the surgery may be done using a minimally invasive technique that involves making a smaller incision. Post-Surgery After the procedure, patients are usually able to go home the same day. Recovery time can vary, but most people can return to light activities and work within a few days to a week. Patients are usually advised to avoid using the affected hand or finger for heavy lifting or strenuous activities for a few weeks to allow for proper healing. Physical therapy may also be recommended to help regain range of motion and strength in the affected finger.

How Vikhe hospital can help get Orthopaedic Surgeries done

To get the surgery done, approach Vikhe Hospital, Sangamner. Dr. Vikhe is specialized in various Orthopaedic Surgeries by providing specialized and comprehensive care for orthopaedic conditions. The hospital has a team of experienced orthopaedic surgeons and staff who can diagnose, treat and manage a wide range of musculoskeletal disorders, including joint replacement surgeries, spine surgeries, sports injuries, trauma, and more. The hospital also has state-of-the-art facilities, advanced technology, and equipment to ensure accurate diagnosis and successful surgeries. Patients receive personalized care, including pre-operative and post-operative rehabilitation, pain management, and counselling.

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